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Title: The neuromicrobiology of Parkinson's disease: A unifying theory
Authors: Munoz-Pinto, Mario F.
Empadinhas, Nuno Miguel da Silva 
Cardoso, Sandra M. 
Keywords: Age-related Parkinson’s disease; Bacteria; Gut microbiome; Gut-brain axis; Infection; Inflammation; Mitochondria
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Elsevier
Project: POCI-01–0145-FEDER-029221/POLYREP: Um polissacarídeo intrigante de micobactérias: reciclagem, replicação e aplicações 
PTDC/MED-NEU/3644/2020/The Gut-Immune-Brain Axis in Parkinson disease 
Serial title, monograph or event: Ageing Research Reviews
Volume: 70
Abstract: Recent evidence confirms that PD is indeed a multifactorial disease with different aetiologies and prodromal symptomatology that likely depend on the initial trigger. New players with important roles as triggers, facilitators and aggravators of the PD neurodegenerative process have re-emerged in the last few years, the microbes. Having evolved in association with humans for ages, microbes and their products are now seen as fundamental regulators of human physiology with disturbances in their balance being increasingly accepted to have a relevant impact on the progression of disease in general and on PD in particular. In this review, we comprehensively address early studies that have directly or indirectly linked bacteria or other infectious agents to the onset and progression of PD, from the earliest suspects to the most recent culprits, the gut microbiota. The quest for effective treatments to arrest PD progression must inevitably address the different interactions between microbiota and human cells, and naturally consider the gut-brain axis. The comprehensive characterization of such mechanisms will help design innovative bacteriotherapeutic approaches to selectively shape the gut microbiota profile ultimately to halt PD progression. The present review describes our current understanding of the role of microorganisms and their endosymbiotic relatives, the mitochondria, in inducing, facilitating, or aggravating PD pathogenesis.
ISSN: 15681637
DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2021.101396
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CNC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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