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Title: Levels of necessity of entrepreneurial ecosystems elements
Authors: Torres, Pedro 
Godinho, Pedro Manuel Cortesão 
Keywords: Digital entrepreneurial ecosystems · Entrepreneurial ecosystem performance · Unicorns · Multisided platforms · Fs/QCA · NCA
Issue Date: 27-May-2020
Project: FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P., Project UIDB/05037/2020 
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Abstract: The literature emphasizes that interactions between biotic (the individual) and abiotic entities (the institutional environment) are central to entrepreneurial ecosystems. However, despite the importance of digital entrepreneurial ecosystem (DEE) elements, it might be questioned if all elements are equally necessary. Furthermore, different outputs might require different conditions. The same can happen with different levels of a given output. The answer to these questions is of particular concern from a policy perspective. By using necessary condition analysis (NCA) alongside with fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fs/QCA), this study advances understanding of the entrepreneurial ecosystems. While fs/QCA identifies only one necessary condition to produce digitally-enabled unicorns – market conditions – and none to unicorns and new business creation, NCA shows that all elements of DEE are necessary to produce digitally-enabled unicorns, and most of them are also necessary for producing unicorns. NCA also identifies formal institutions, regulations, and taxation and finance as necessary conditions for new business creation. Moreover, NCA shows that necessary conditions do not have the same degree of importance, and the necessity of a given condition does not automatically imply its highest level is required. For researchers, these results emphasize the importance of using NCA as a complement of fs/QCA. For practitioners, these findings can be used to optimize the allocation of policy resources, particularly targeting the elements that constitute bottlenecks.
DOI: 10.1007/s11187-021-00515-3
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CeBER - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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