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Title: Influence of the antioxidants vitamin E and idebenone on retinal cell injury mediated by chemical ischemia, hypoglycemia, or oxidative stress
Authors: Rego, Ana Cristina 
Santos, Maria Sancha 
Oliveira, Catarina R. 
Keywords: Hypoglycemia; Idebenone; Ischemia; Oxidative stress; Retinal cell death; Vitamin E; Free radicals
Issue Date: 1999
Citation: Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 26:11-12 (1999) 1405-1417
Abstract: A role for the antioxidants vitamin E and idebenone in decreasing retinal cell injury, after metabolic inhibition induced by chemical ischemia and hypoglycemia, was investigated and compared with oxidative stress conditions. Preincubation of the antioxidants, vitamin E (20 [mu]M) and idebenone (10 [mu]M), effectively protected from retinal cell injury after oxidative stress or hypoglycemia, whereas the protection afforded after postincubation of both antioxidants was decreased. Delayed retinal cell damage, mediated by chemical ischemia, was attenuated at 10 or 12 h postischemia, only after exposure to the antioxidants during all the experimental procedure. An antagonist of the N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptors, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or a blocker of -type Ca2+ channels were ineffective in reducing cell injury induced by chemical ischemia, hypoglycemia or oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and hypoglycemia increased (about 1.2-fold) significantly the fluorescence of the probe DCFH2-DA, that is indicative of intracellular ROS formation. Free radical generation detected with the probe dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR 123) was enhanced after oxidative stress, chemical ischemia or hypoglycemia (about 2-fold). Nevertheless, the antioxidants vitamin E or idebenone were ineffective against intracellular ROS generation. Cellular energy charge decreased greatly after chemical ischemia, was moderately affected after hypoglycemia, but no significant changes were observed after oxidative stress. Preincubation with vitamin E prevented the changes in energy charge upon 6 h posthypoglycemia. We can conclude that irreversible changes occurring during chemical ischemia mainly reflect the alterations taking place at the ischemic core, whereas hypoglycemia situations may reflect changes occurring at the penumbra area, whereby vitamin E or idebenone may help to increase cell survival, exerting a beneficial neuroprotective effect.
DOI: 10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00337-2
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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