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|Title:||Cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS in staurosporine-induced retinal cell apoptosis||Authors:||Gil, Joana
Oliveira, Catarina R.
Rego, A. Cristina
|Keywords:||Apoptosis; Antioxidants; Calcium; Caspase-3; Mitochondria; Reactive oxygen species; Retinal cells; Staurosporine; Free radicals||Issue Date:||2003||Citation:||Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 35:11 (2003) 1500-1514||Abstract:||In this study, we investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium in staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in cultured retinal neurons, under conditions of maintained membrane integrity. The antioxidants idebenone (IDB), glutathione-ethylester (GSH/EE), trolox, and Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP) significantly reduced STS-induced caspase-3-like activity and intracellular ROS generation. Endogenous sources of ROS production were investigated by testing the effect of the following inhibitors: 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a specific inhibitor of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS); arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) inhibitor; allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor; and the mitochondrial inhibitors rotenone and oligomycin. All these compounds decreased caspase-3-like activity and ROS generation, showing that both mitochondrial and cytosolic sources of ROS are implicated in this mechanism. STS induced a significant increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was partially prevented in the presence of IDB and GSH/EE, indicating its dependence on ROS generation. These two antioxidants and the inhibitors allopurinol and 7-NI also reduced the number of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells. Thus, endogenous ROS generation and the rise in intracellular calcium are important inter-players in STS-triggered apoptosis. Furthermore, the antioxidants may help to prolong retinal cell survival upon apoptotic cell death.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/10316/4797||DOI:||10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2003.08.022||Rights:||openAccess|
|Appears in Collections:||FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais|
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