Title: The influence of women’s attachment style on the chronobiology of labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect
Authors: Costa-Martins, José Manuel 
Pereira, Marco 
Martins, Henriqueta 
Moura-Ramos, Mariana 
Coelho, Rui 
Tavares, Jorge 
Keywords: Adult;Analgesia, Patient-Controlled;Analgesics;Fear;Female;Humans;Labor Pain;Middle Aged;Pain Measurement;Pain Perception;Pain Threshold;Pregnancy;Prospective Studies;Reaction Time;Time Factors;Young Adult;Analgesia, Epidural;Circadian Rhythm;Emotions
Issue Date: 2014
Citation: Costa-Martins, J. M., Pereira, M., Martins, H., Moura-Ramos, M., Coelho, R., & Tavares, J. (2014). The influence of women’s attachment style on the chronobiology of labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect. Chronobiology International, 31(6), 787-796. doi:10.3109/07420528.2014.901973
Abstract: Circadian variation in biological rhythms has been identified as affecting both labour pain and the pharmacological properties of analgesics. In the context of pain, there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting the importance of adult attachment. The purpose of this study was to examine whether labour pain, analgesic consumption and pharmacological effect are significantly affected by the time of day and to analyse whether this circadian variation is influenced by women's attachment style. This prospective observational study included a sample of 81 pregnant women receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA). Attachment was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale - Revised. The perceived intensity of labour pain in the early stage of labour (3 cm of cervical dilatation and before the administration of PCEA) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain was also indirectly assessed by measuring the consumption of anaesthetics. The latency period and the duration of effect were recorded for a chronopharmacology characterisation. Pain, as assessed with the VAS, was significantly higher in the night-time group than in the daytime group. An insecure attachment style was significantly associated with greater labour pain at 3 cm of cervical dilatation (p < 0.001) and before the beginning of analgesia (p < 0.001) as well as with higher analgesic consumption and lower pharmacological efficacy (p < 0.05). The time of day was significantly associated with the pharmacological effect: the latency period was longer at night, and the duration of the pharmacological effect was longer during the daytime. The interaction between time of day and attachment style was not significant for any of the study variables. Our results provide evidence of the importance of circadian variation in studying labour pain and the pharmacological effect of labour analgesia involving epidural blockage with a PCEA regimen. Moreover, although there was no evidence that attachment style influenced the circadian variation, these data emphasise that insecure attachment patterns are a risk factor for greater labour pain and analgesic consumption, which should be considered in pain management approaches.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/47392
DOI: 10.3109/07420528.2014.901973
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FPCEUC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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