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Title: Measuring loneliness: Psychometric properties of the three-item loneliness scale among community-dwelling adults
Authors: Daniel, Fernanda 
Santo, Helena Espírito 
Lemos, Laura 
Guadalupe, Sónia 
Barroso, Isabel
Silva, Alexandre Gomes da 
Ferreira, Pedro Lopes 
Issue Date: May-2023
Publisher: Elsevier
Project: CEISUC/CIBB is funded by national funds through FCT Foundation for Science and Technology, I.P., under the Multiannual Financing of R&D Units 2020–2023 
Serial title, monograph or event: Heliyon
Volume: 9
Issue: 5
Abstract: Loneliness is a prevalent set of negative feelings associated with unsatisfactory and reduced social interactions, inadequate social support, poor satisfaction with life and health, negative emotions, and economic burden. Thus, its measurement is of foremost importance. Therefore, this study aimed (i) to devise the Portuguese version of the three-Item Loneliness Scale (T-ILS), which is ideal for epidemiological studies, and (ii) to evaluate its psychometric properties. Three hundred forty-five community-dwelling Portuguese adults with a mean age of 54.6 ± 19.5 years, 61.7% women, recruited door-to-door, were assessed with the Portuguese versions of T-ILS, Satisfaction With Life Scale-SWLS, Lubben Social Network Scale 6-items-LSNS-6, a question regarding Happiness/Unhappiness, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The T-ILS showed good psychometric properties and correlated moderately with SWLS and LSNS-6, and happiness, and weakly with the number of people in the household. The Portuguese version of the T-ILS proved to be a valid and reliable instrument, easy and quick to administer. It proved to be a valuable tool in screening loneliness in Portugal, being potentially useful to the identification of lonelier people in need of intervention.
ISSN: 2405-8440
DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15948
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CINEICC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CEISUC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FEUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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