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Title: Toxicity Going Nano: Ionic Versus Engineered Cu Nanoparticles Impacts on the Physiological Fitness of the Model Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Authors: Franzitta, Marco
Feijão, Eduardo
Cabrita, Maria Teresa
Gameiro, Carla 
Matos, Ana Rita 
Marques, João Carlos 
Goessling, Johannes W.
Santos, Patrick Reis 
Fonseca, Vanessa F.
Pretti, Carlo
Caçador, Isabel 
Duarte, Bernardo 
Keywords: CuO nanoparticles; photobiology; oxidative stress; lipid metabolism; phytoplankton; cytotoxicity; marine systems
Issue Date: 2020
Project: PTDC/CTA-AMB/30056/2017 (OPTOX) 
investigation contracts (CEECIND/00511/2017 and DL57/2016/CP1479/CT0024) 
FCT - postdoctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/95784/2013). 
co-funding through the NanoTRAINforGrowth II Program (project 2000032) by the European Commission through the Horizon 2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie COFUND Program (2015), and by the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory 
Serial title, monograph or event: Frontiers in Marine Science
Volume: 7
Abstract: Increasing input of Metal Engineered Nano Particles (MeENPs) in marine ecosystems has raised concerns about their potential toxicity on phytoplankton. Given the lack of knowledge on MeENPs impact on these important primary producers, the effects of Copper Oxide (CuO) ENPs on growth, physiology, pigment profiles, fatty acid (FA) metabolism, and oxidative stress were investigated in the model diatom Pheodactylum tricornutum, to provide suitable biomarkers of CuO ENP exposure versus its ionic counterpart. Diatom growth was inhibited by CuO ENPs but not Ionic Cu, suggesting CuO ENP cytotoxicity. Pulse Modulated Amplitude (PAM) phenotyping evidenced a decrease in the electron transport energy flux, pointing to a reduction in chemical energy generation following CuO ENPs exposure, as well as an increase in the content of the non-functional Cu-substituted chlorophyll a (CuChl a). A significant decrease in eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) associated with a significant rise in thylakoid membranes FAs reflected the activation of counteractive measures to photosynthetic impairment. Significant increase in the omega 6/omega 3 ratio, underline expectable negative repercussions to marine food webs. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances reflected heightened oxidative stress by CuO ENP. Enhanced Glutathione Reductase and Ascorbate Peroxidase activity were also more evident for CuO ENPs than ionic Cu. Overall, observed molecular changes highlighted a battery of possible suitable biomarkers to efficiently determine the harmful effects of CuO ENPs. The results suggest that the occurrence and contamination of these new forms of metal contaminants can impose added stress to the marine diatom community, which could have significant impacts on marine ecosystems, namely through a reduction of the primary productivity, oxygen production and omega 6 production, all essential to sustain heterotrophic marine life.
ISSN: 2296-7745
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.539827
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D MARE - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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