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Title: Analysis of the In Vitro Toxicity of Nanocelluloses in Human Lung Cells as Compared to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Pinto, Fátima V. 
Lourenço, Ana Filipa 
Pedrosa, Jorge F. S. 
Gonçalves, Lídia
Ventura, Célia 
Vital, Nádia
Bettencourt, Ana
Fernandes, Susete N.
Rosa, Rafaela R. da
Godinho, Maria Helena
Louro, Henriqueta
Ferreira, Paulo J. T. 
Silva, Maria João
Keywords: micro/nanocelluloses; in vitro cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; micronucleus assay; cell uptake; reactive oxygen species
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: MDPI
Project: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/ ToxApp4NanoCELFI/| PTDC/SAU-PUB/32587/2017 
EUTOPIA CA17139/European Topology Interdisciplinary Action 
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/POCI-01-0247-FEDER-021874/InPaCTus—Innovative Products and Technologies from Eucalyptus/2017 
FCT/MCTES/PhD Scholarship grant 2020.07168.BD 
Serial title, monograph or event: Nanomaterials
Volume: 12
Issue: 9
Abstract: Cellulose micro/nanomaterials (CMNM), comprising cellulose microfibrils (CMF), nanofibrils (CNF), and nanocrystals (CNC), are being recognized as promising bio-nanomaterials due to their natural and renewable source, attractive properties, and potential for applications with industrial and economical value. Thus, it is crucial to investigate their potential toxicity before starting their production at a larger scale. The present study aimed at evaluating the cell internalization and in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of CMNM as compared to two multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), NM-401 and NM-402, in A549 cells. The exposure to all studied NM, with the exception of CNC, resulted in evident cellular uptake, as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. However, none of the CMNM induced cytotoxic effects, in contrast to the cytotoxicity observed for the MWCNT. Furthermore, no genotoxicity was observed for CNF, CNC, and NM-402 (cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay), while CMF and NM-401 were able to significantly raise micronucleus frequency. Only NM-402 was able to induce ROS formation, although it did not induce micronuclei. Thus, it is unlikely that the observed CMF and NM-401 genotoxicity is mediated by oxidative DNA damage. More studies targeting other genotoxicity endpoints and cellular and molecular events are underway to allow for a more comprehensive safety assessment of these nanocelluloses.
ISSN: 2079-4991
DOI: 10.3390/nano12091432
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CIEPQPF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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