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Title: Disaster resilience of optical networks: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities
Authors: Rak, Jacek 
Girão-Silva, Rita 
Gomes, Teresa 
Ellinas, Georgios 
Kantarci, Burak
Tornatore, Massimo
Keywords: Optical networks; Resilience; 5G and beyond; Content connectivity; Data evacuation; Datacenters; Failure recovery; Fixed-mobile convergence; Malicious attacks; Manycast; Natural disasters; Network availability; Post-disaster modeling; Post-disaster recovery; Power disruptions; Weather-based disruptions
Issue Date: Nov-2021
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Project: COST Action CA15127 (“Resilient communication services protecting end-user applications from disaster-based failures” – RECODIS) 
COST - European Cooperation in Science and Technology 
European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 739551 (KIOS CoE) 
Government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development 
Cyprus Research and Innovation Foundation under project CULTURE/AWARD-YR/0418/0014 (REALFON) 
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) DISCOVERY Program under RGPIN/2017–04032 
U.S.–Japan JUNO2 project (NSF Grant no. 1818972) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Optical Switching and Networking
Volume: 42
Abstract: For several decades, optical networks, due to their high capacity and long-distance transmission range, have been used as the major communication technology to serve network traffic, especially in the core and metro segments of communication networks. Unfortunately, our society has often experienced how the correct functioning of these critical infrastructures can be substantially hindered by massive failures triggered by natural disasters, weather-related disruptions and malicious human activities. In this position paper, we discuss the impact on optical networks of all major classes of disaster events mentioned above, and we overview recent relevant techniques that have been proposed to increase the disaster resilience of optical networks against the various classes of disaster events. We start by presenting some proactive methods to be applied before the occurrence of a disaster. Then we move our focus also on other preparedness methods that can be executed in the (typically short) time frame between the occurrence of an early alert of an incoming disaster and the time a disaster actually hits the network. Finally, we discuss reactive procedures that allow performing post-disaster recovery operations effectively. The analysis of disaster resilience mechanisms provided in this paper covers both wired and optical wireless communication infrastructures and also contains explicit remarks covering the role of emerging technologies (e.g., fixed-mobile convergence in the 5G era and beyond) in disaster resilience.
ISSN: 1573-4277
DOI: 10.1016/j.osn.2021.100619
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FCTUC Eng.Electrotécnica - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D INESCC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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