Title: Optimization of Verapamil Drug Analysis by Excitation-Emission Fluorescence in Combination with Second-order Multivariate Calibration
Authors: Leitão, João 
Silva, Joaquim Esteves da 
Girón, Ana 
Muñoz de la Peña, Arsenio 
Issue Date: 2008
Abstract: Abstract Excitation emission fluorescence matrices (EEMs) of Verapamil drug were obtained by direct and by derivatization fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths were displaced to longer wavelengths and the fluorescence intensity was enhanced upon derivation with respect to the native fluorescence of the drug. The complete EEM of the native fluorescence of the drug and of the derivatization product were rapidly acquired by using a charged-coupled device detector (CCD), which is advantageous in terms of speed in the analysis, with respect to the use of a conventional photomultiplier detector. The EEMs were analyzed by several second-order multivariate calibration methods exploiting the second order advantage. The three-dimensional decomposition methods used, based in different assumptions about the trilinearity of the three way data structure under analysis, were parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), bilinear least squares (BLLS), parallel factor analysis 2 (PARAFAC2) and multivariate curve resolution—alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). The determination was performed by using the standard addition approach. The figures of merit of the PARAFAC and BLLS methods were calculated, obtaining a lower limit of detection with the derivatization procedure, when compared with the direct measurement of the fluorescence of the drug. In Verapamil drug the best estimations were found with the BLLS and the MCR-ALS models. In the quantification of Verapamil in a pharmaceutical formulation the best estimation, when compared with the result obtained by the US Pharmacopeia high performance liquid chromatography approach, was obtained by direct fluorescence spectroscopy with MCR-ALS and by derivatization fluorescence spectroscopy with the PARAFAC2 model.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/7936
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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