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Title: Cholesteryl Ester Hydroperoxide Formation in Myoglobin-Catalyzed Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation : Concerted Antioxidant Activity of Caffeic and p-Coumaric Acids with Ascorbate
Authors: Vieira, Otília 
Laranjinha, João 
Madeira, Vítor 
Almeida, Leonor 
Issue Date: 1998
Citation: Biochemical Pharmacology. 55:3 (1998) 333-340
Abstract: Two diet-derived phenolic acids, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, interplayed with ascorbate in the protection of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from oxidation promoted by ferrylmyoglobin. Ferrylmyoglobin, a two-electron oxidation product from the reaction of metmyoglobin and H2O2, was able to oxidize LDL, degrading free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. Upon exposure to ferrylmyoglobin, LDL became rapidly depleted of cholesteryl arachidonate and linoleate, which turn into the corresponding hydroperoxides. Cholesteryl oleate and cholesterol were, comparatively, more resistant to oxidation. Caffeic (2 [mu]M) and p-coumaric (12 [mu]M) acids efficiently delayed oxidations, as reflected by an increase in the lag times required for linoleate hydroperoxide and 7-ketocholesterol formation as well as for cholesteryl linoleate consumption. At the same concentration, ascorbate, a standard water-soluble antioxidant, was less efficient than the phenolic acids. Additionally, phenolic acids afforded a protection to LDL that, conversely to ascorbate, extends along the time, as inferred from the high levels of cholesteryl linoleate and cholesteryl arachidonate left after 22 hr of oxidation challenging. Significantly, the coincubation of LDL with ascorbate and each of the phenolic acids resulted in a synergistic protection from oxidation. This was inferred from the lag phases of cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide (the major peroxide found in LDL) formation in the presence of mixtures of ascorbate with phenolic acids longer than the sum of individual lag phases of ascorbate and the phenolic acids. A similar description could be drawn for the accumulation of a late product of oxidation, 7-ketocholesterol. It is concluded that ferrylmyoglobin induces a typical pattern of LDL lipid peroxidation, the oxidation rate of cholesteryl esters being a function of unsaturation; furthermore, there is a synergistic antioxidant activity of diet-derived phenolic acids with ascorbate in the protection of LDL from oxidation, a finding of putative physiological relevance.
DOI: 10.1016/S0006-2952(97)00470-X
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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