Title: Overweight and obesity and their associated factors among early adolescence school children in urban and rural Portugal
Authors: Macieira, Luísa Maria de Morais 
Saraiva, Jorge Manuel Tavares Lopes de Andrade 
Santos, Lélita da Conceição 
Keywords: Obesity;Overweight;Child;Adolescent;Eating habits;Sedentary lifestyle
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: BioMed Central
Abstract: Background: Obesity is defined as an abnormal or excessive accumulation of body fat and it is currently one of the most concerning public health issues, as it is related to a wide range of serious diseases and disorders. The study of the causes of obesity is multifactorial, and its diagnosis requires specific methods. Its management is complex, and it is crucial that it is handled appropriately, and its primary focus should be on prevention through lifestyle changes. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity in adolescents of both genders, aged 10 to 12 years, from different geographical environments (rural and urban), as well as to identify the underlying risk factors related to the respective obesity rates, namely: family environment, eating habits, and physical exercise. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study in a sample of 129 adolescents aged 10 to 12 years was conducted. Participants of both genders from rural and urban environments were included in this study. A questionnaire was completed on eating habits and physical activity, focusing on the number of daily meals, meal composition, and sedentary lifestyle habits. An anthropometric assessment was also performed, including weight, height, skinfolds, waist circumference, arm circumference, and percentage of lean mass and body fat, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: In the rural environment, the obesity rate was 16.9%, with 26.8% being either overweight or obese; whereas in the urban environment, these rates were respectively 16.7% and 33.4%. Living in a rural environment was not an independent predictor of being overweight or obesity, p=0.581, or for increased percentage of body fat, p = 0.790. In contrast, being 12 years old, eating high-calorie foods four times a week or less, and having at least one obese parent were predictors of being overweight or obesity. Being 12 years old was also a predictor of gaining moderate to high body fat. Conclusions: Adolescents’ residence in a rural or urban environment does not affect the occurrence of being overweight, obesity or high body fat. Paternal obesity was an important predictor of obesity in children. Obese fathers tended to serve higher calorie meals to their children.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/36977
ISSN: 2055-0928
Other Identifiers: 10.1186/s40795-017-0134-6
DOI: 10.1186/s40795-017-0134-6
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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