Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/23019
Title: Agamemnon(es) : entre o Mito e a Literatura
Authors: Pereira, Reina Marisol Troca
Orientador: Silva, Maria de Fátima Sousa e
Issue Date: 28-Mar-2013
Citation: PEREIRA, Reina Marisol Troca - Agamemnon(es) : entre o mito e a literatura. Coimbra : [s.n.], 2012. Tese de doutoramento. Disponível na WWW: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/23019
Abstract: A tese intitulada "Agamemnon(es): entre o Mito e a Literatura" efectua uma abordagem diacrónica sobre a figura de Agamémnon. Esse périplo conta com a análise e o comentário de várias obras e fragmentos de múltiplos autores da Literatura Grega. Indo ao encontro do objectivo pretendido, caracterizam-se as figuras construídas e apresentadas sob o mesmo nome consagrado pela mitologia. De comum, mantem-se um fio condutor estruturante, que permite identificar, à margem de qualquer dúvida, o mais velho dos Atridas: a falta de moderação, a insolência e a ambição mostram-se constantes. Em simultâneo, verifica-se a existência e providencia-se a explicação de semelhanças e diferenças entre autores, géneros literários e épocas. Procura-se, com as devidas reservas, aproximar a ficcionalidade literária da factualidade social, explicando-se aspectos particulares evidenciados na literatura com assuntos de diversa ordem (e.g. justiça; política; relações; traições; poder; guerra), que os criadores pretendiam realçar. Para alcançar o pretendido, parte-se da explanação de um factor hereditário, que provinha desde o plano divino e que se foi avolumando até à geração de Agamémnon. Ainda assim, longe de tratar-se de uma pobre vítima de uma propensão genética, a responsabilidade pelos seus actos nas mais diversas esferas - desde a política, à guerreira e à doméstica - ocupa um espaço considerável, repartido pela deferência recebida na epopeia, na lírica e no drama. Inscrevem-se nas matérias ponderadas a obtenção do poder, os objectivos da empresa troiana, a partida para Tróia, o sacrifício de Ifigénia, as ofensas aos deuses, os dolos, o conflito bélico, a gestão das tropas, o relacionamento com os camaradas de guerra antes e após a refrega, as atitudes para com os inimigos e as cativas, o retorno ao lar, o orgulho, o assassinato. Concomitantemente, colocam-se em apreço algumas personagens que, não constituindo o cerne de análise da tese, contribuem para averiguar o carácter de Agamémnon nessa interacção, para além de recolher as impressões que essas figuras foram criando a respeito do Atrida - tudo num crescendo que atingiria um inevitável clímax com a sua morte. Desfilam nesse rol guerreiros, como Aquiles, Nestor, Ájax, Ulisses; o profeta Calcas; membros da família, a começar pelo irmão Menelau; mulheres, a exemplo da esposa, mas também das cativas, de que Hécuba, Briseida, Criseida, Cassandra fazem parte. Porém, o retorno do líder à pátria não serviu para completar o ciclo da história da casa dos Atridas. A ironia que compõe a vida humana, dada a constantes volte-faces da fortuna, rapidamente colocam o ilustre vencedor na posição de vítima de um fim inglório. Ainda que sentindo-se os criminosos vingados, cada um à sua maneira, ficam-lhes as reservas pela justiça que os aguardaria. Seguindo o modelo primitivo, a retaliação e o restabelecimento do poder perdido cabem mormente aos filhos de Agamémnon, Orestes e a Electra. Apoiados por uns (e.g. Pílades) e odiados por outros (e.g. Tíndaro), o homicídio e o matricídio envolvem no processo as Fúrias de outrora, enlouquecedoras da consciência. Ademais, as instituições de justiça positiva ganham destaque em tempos de democracia, mas não de forma completamente satisfatória, denunciando algumas fragilidades. Em suma, ponderar sobre Agamémnon envolve um manancial de questões e a abertura de hipóteses numa constante, mas também perpétua e infinda digressão na rota do conhecimento.
The current thesis, entitled “Agamemnon(es): entre o Mito e a Literatura”, presents a diachronic approach regarding the mythological character Agamemnon. Its structure comprises the commentary of several works, both complete and fragmentary, from multiple Ancient Greek Authors. In order to attain the desired objective, the figures constructed and presented under the same name consecrated by the mythology receive a thorough analysis. In common, there is a structure which makes the identification of the oldest of Atreides possible beyond any doubt: the lack of restraint, the insolence and the ambition are constantly present. Simultaneously, similarities as well as differences between authors, literary genders and epochs are displayed. The intention of getting the fiction nearer to the social factuality, although with all the due caution, is present and fulfilled by the explanation of particular themes shown in the literary texts and by relating them with the manifold subjects that the authors intended to emphasize (e.g. justice; politics; relationships; treasons; power; war). In order to meet all its goals, the project begins with the explanation of a hereditary factor which came from the divine sphere and gradually accumulated until Agamemnon’s generation. However, far from being just a wretched victim of genetic propensity, the responsibility for his actions regarding different areas – politics, warfare and private affairs – plays a considerable role, shared by the references collected from the epic, the lyric and the drama. The topics include questions such as the achievement of power, the purpose of the Trojan voyage; the sail to Troy; Iphigenia’s sacrifice; the offenses against the gods; the lies; the war; the management of the troops; the relations with the comrades before and after the conflict; the attitudes towards the enemies and the captives; the returns; the pride; the assassination. At the same time, the analysis of some characters is presented, even though they do not figure as the main theme of this thesis. However, they greatly contribute to the evaluation of Agamemnon’s nature in those relationships. Furthermore, they allow for the collection of a group of perceptions regarding Agamemnon that were building up to the inevitable climax of his death. This analysis includes warriors such as Achilles, Nestor, Ajax, Odysseus; the prophet Calchas; family members, beginning The current thesis, entitled “Agamemnon(es): entre o Mito e a Literatura”, presents a diachronic approach regarding the mythological character Agamemnon. Its structure comprises the commentary of several works, both complete and fragmentary, from multiple Ancient Greek Authors. In order to attain the desired objective, the figures constructed and presented under the same name consecrated by the mythology receive a thorough analysis. In common, there is a structure which makes the identification of the oldest of Atreides possible beyond any doubt: the lack of restraint, the insolence and the ambition are constantly present. Simultaneously, similarities as well as differences between authors, literary genders and epochs are displayed. The intention of getting the fiction nearer to the social factuality, although with all the due caution, is present and fulfilled by the explanation of particular themes shown in the literary texts and by relating them with the manifold subjects that the authors intended to emphasize (e.g. justice; politics; relationships; treasons; power; war). In order to meet all its goals, the project begins with the explanation of a hereditary factor which came from the divine sphere and gradually accumulated until Agamemnon’s generation. However, far from being just a wretched victim of genetic propensity, the responsibility for his actions regarding different areas – politics, warfare and private affairs – plays a considerable role, shared by the references collected from the epic, the lyric and the drama. The topics include questions such as the achievement of power, the purpose of the Trojan voyage; the sail to Troy; Iphigenia’s sacrifice; the offenses against the gods; the lies; the war; the management of the troops; the relations with the comrades before and after the conflict; the attitudes towards the enemies and the captives; the returns; the pride; the assassination. At the same time, the analysis of some characters is presented, even though they do not figure as the main theme of this thesis. However, they greatly contribute to the evaluation of Agamemnon’s nature in those relationships. Furthermore, they allow for the collection of a group of perceptions regarding Agamemnon that were building up to the inevitable climax of his death. This analysis includes warriors such as Achilles, Nestor, Ajax, Odysseus; the prophet Calchas; family members, beginningwith the brother Menelaus; women, such as his spouse and also captives like Hecuba, Briseis, Chryseis and Cassandra. However, the king’s homecoming did not complete the cycle of the house of the Atreides. The irony of the human life, with constant turnings of fortune, suddenly renders the glorious victor a victim of an inglorious death. Although the criminals feel vindicated, each in his own way, they have reservations about the justice that awaits them. Following the primitive model of justice, the retaliation and the regaining of the lost power is executed mainly by Agamemnon’s son Orestes and Electra, supported by some (e.g. Pylades) and hated by others (e.g. Tyndar). The homicide and matricide imply the presence of the ancient and mind-disturbing Furies. Moreover, the existence of the institutions belonging to the positive justice is intensified during the democracy. However, this process is not entirely satisfactory, thus denouncing some fragilities. In conclusion, the scrutiny of Agamemnon’s character implies a large number of questions, as well as the creation of hypotheses in a constant yet perpetual and endless digression towards knowledge.
Description: Tese de doutoramento em Letras, área de Estudos Clássicos, especialidade de Literatura Grega, apresentada à Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra
Peer review: Yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/23019
Appears in Collections:FLUC Secção de Estudos Clássicos - Teses de Doutoramento

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