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Title: Regulated and Emerging Mycotoxins in Bulk Raw Milk: What Is the Human Risk?
Authors: Leite, Marta 
Freitas, Andreia
Barbosa, Jorge
Ramos, Fernando 
Keywords: raw milk; regulated mycotoxins; emerging mycotoxins; occurrence; exposure assessment
Issue Date: 9-Oct-2023
Publisher: MDPI
Project: UIDB/50006/2020 
Serial title, monograph or event: Toxins
Volume: 15
Issue: 10
Abstract: Mycotoxins are abiotic hazards whose contamination occurs at the pre- and post-harvest stages of the maize value chain, with animal exposure through contaminated feed leading to their excretion into milk. Currently, only aflatoxin M1 is regulated in milk products. Since feed materials and complete feed present a multi-mycotoxin composition and are the main mycotoxin source into milk, it is important to recognize the occurrence of multiple toxins and their co-occurrence in this highly consumed food product. The aim of this study was to determine the content of regulated and emerging mycotoxins in milk samples, which allowed for evaluating the occurrence and co-occurrence patterns of different mycotoxins known to contaminate feed materials and complete animal feed. Human exposure considering the occurrence patterns obtained was also estimated. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, and emerging mycotoxins were among the mycotoxins found to be present in the 100 samples analyzed. Concentrations ranged from 0.006 to 16.3 μg L-1, with no sample exceeding the AFM1 maximum level. Though several mycotoxins were detected, no exceeding values were observed considering the TDI or PMTDI. It can be concluded that the observed exposure does not pose a health risk to milk consumers, though it is important to recognize vulnerable age groups.
ISSN: 2072-6651
DOI: 10.3390/toxins15100605
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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