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Title: In Vivo Tracking of Extracellular Vesicles by Nuclear Imaging: Advances in Radiolabeling Strategies
Authors: Almeida, Sara 
Santos, Liliana 
Falcão, Amílcar 
Gomes, Célia M. 
Abrunhosa, Antero J. 
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; in vivo tracking; nuclear imaging; radiolabeling
Issue Date: 11-Dec-2020
Publisher: MDPI
Project: UID/NEU/04539/2019 
FCT - PhD fellow (PD/BDE/142929/2018). 
FCT - PhD fellow (PD/BDE/150707/2020). 
Liga Portuguesa contra o Cancro/Lions Portugal 
Serial title, monograph or event: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume: 21
Issue: 24
Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are naturally secreted vesicles that have attracted a large amount of interest in nanomedicine in recent years due to their innate biocompatibility, high stability, low immunogenicity, and important role in cell-to-cell communication during pathological processes. Their versatile nature holds great potential to improve the treatment of several diseases through their use as imaging biomarkers, therapeutic agents, and drug-delivery vehicles. However, the clinical translation of EV-based approaches requires a better understanding of their in vivo behavior. Several imaging technologies have been used for the non-invasive in vivo tracking of EVs, with a particular emphasis on nuclear imaging due to its high sensitivity, unlimited penetration depth and accurate quantification. In this article, we will review the biological function and inherent characteristics of EVs and provide an overview of molecular imaging modalities used for their in vivo monitoring, with a special focus on nuclear imaging. The advantages of radionuclide-based imaging modalities make them a promising tool to validate the use of EVs in the clinical setting, as they have the potential to characterize in vivo the pharmacokinetics and biological behavior of the vesicles. Furthermore, we will discuss the current methods available for radiolabeling EVs, such as covalent binding, encapsulation or intraluminal labeling and membrane radiolabeling, reporting the advantages and drawbacks of each radiolabeling approach.
ISSN: 1422-0067
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21249443
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D ICNAS - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBB - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBIT - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D ICBR - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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