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Title: Microbial Biofilms in the Food Industry-A Comprehensive Review
Authors: Carrascosa, Conrado
Raheem, Dele
Ramos, Fernando 
Saraiva, Ariana 
Raposo, António
Keywords: biofilms; food industry; food microbiology; food safety
Issue Date: 19-Feb-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Serial title, monograph or event: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume: 18
Issue: 4
Abstract: Biofilms, present as microorganisms and surviving on surfaces, can increase food cross-contamination, leading to changes in the food industry's cleaning and disinfection dynamics. Biofilm is an association of microorganisms that is irreversibly linked with a surface, contained in an extracellular polymeric substance matrix, which poses a formidable challenge for food industries. To avoid biofilms from forming, and to eliminate them from reversible attachment and irreversible stages, where attached microorganisms improve surface adhesion, a strong disinfectant is required to eliminate bacterial attachments. This review paper tackles biofilm problems from all perspectives, including biofilm-forming pathogens in the food industry, disinfectant resistance of biofilm, and identification methods. As biofilms are largely responsible for food spoilage and outbreaks, they are also considered responsible for damage to food processing equipment. Hence the need to gain good knowledge about all of the factors favouring their development or growth, such as the attachment surface, food matrix components, environmental conditions, the bacterial cells involved, and electrostatic charging of surfaces. Overall, this review study shows the real threat of biofilms in the food industry due to the resistance of disinfectants and the mechanisms developed for their survival, including the intercellular signalling system, the cyclic nucleotide second messenger, and biofilm-associated proteins.
ISSN: 1660-4601
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18042014
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FFUC- Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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