Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/10316/104615
Title: Methodological Characteristics, Physiological and Physical Effects, and Future Directions for Combined Training in Soccer: A Systematic Review
Authors: Ribeiro, Jorge 
Afonso, José
Camões, Miguel
Sarmento, Hugo 
Sá, Mário
Lima, Ricardo 
Oliveira, Rafael
Clemente, Filipe Manuel 
Keywords: soccer; athletic performance; strength training; high-intensity interval training; resistance training
Issue Date: 20-Aug-2021
Publisher: MDPI AG
Project: UIDB/EEA/50008/2020 
Spanish government - PGC2018-098742-B-C31] (Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Programa Estatal de Generación de Conocimiento y Fortalecimiento Científico y Tecnológico del Sistema I+D+i) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Healthcare (Switzerland)
Volume: 9
Issue: 8
Abstract: Combined training (CT) may combine strength and endurance training within a given time period, but it can also encompass additional protocols consisting of velocity, balance, or mobility as part of the same intervention. These combined approaches have become more common in soccer. This systematic review was conducted to (1) characterize the training protocols used in CT studies in soccer, (2) summarize the main physiological and physical effects of CT on soccer players, and (3) provide future directions for research. Methods: A systematic review of Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The PICOS were defined as follows: P (soccer players of any age or sex); I (CT combining strength and endurance or sprinting or balance or mobility training); C (the control group (whenever applicable), with or without comparative interventions in addition to usual soccer training); O (acute and/or chronic responses: biochemical, physiological and physical); S (must have at least two groups, either randomized or non-randomized). The database search initially identified 79 titles. From those, eight articles were deemed eligible for the systematic review. Three studies analyzed acute responses to concurrent training, while the remaining five analyzed adaptations to CT. In those tested for acute responses, physiological (hormonal) and physical (strength and power external load, internal load) parameters were observed. Adaptations were mainly focused on physical parameters (strength and power, sprints, jumps, repeated sprint ability, aerobic, change-of-direction), with relatively little focus on physiological parameters (muscle architecture). Short-term responses to CT can affect hormonal responses of testosterone after resistance training with internal and external load. In turn, these responses' effects on strength and power have produced mixed results, as have adaptations. Specifically, strength and hypertrophy are affected to a lesser extent than speed/power movements. Nevertheless, it is preferable to perform CT before endurance exercises since it is a limiting factor for interference. Volume, intensity, rest between sessions, and athletes' fitness levels and nutrition dictate the degree of interference.
URI: https://hdl.handle.net/10316/104615
ISSN: 2227-9032
DOI: 10.3390/healthcare9081075
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CIDAF - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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