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Title: Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment of an Innovative Multifunctional Toilet
Authors: Rodrigues, Carla 
Almeida, João 
Santos, Maria Inês
Costa, Andreia
Além, Sandra
Rufo, Emanuel
Tadeu, António 
Freire, Fausto 
Keywords: bidet; eco-design; energy savings; life-cycle assessment; toilet; user behavior; washlet; water savings
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: MDPI AG
Project: POCI-01-0247-FEDER-017461 
FCT - CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-030570 (SETLCA) 
FCT - M-ERA-NET2/0017/2016 (CTB Basics) 
Serial title, monograph or event: Energies
Volume: 14
Issue: 8
Abstract: Innovative toilets can save resources, but have higher embodied impacts associated with materials and electronic components. This article presents an environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) of an innovative multifunctional toilet (WashOne) for two alternative configurations (with or without washlet), comparing its performance with those of conventional systems (toilet and bidet). Additionally, two scenario analyses were conducted: (i) user behavior (alternative washlet use patterns) and (ii) user location (Portugal, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Saudi Arabia). The results show that the WashOne with washlet has a better global environmental performance than the conventional system, even for low use. It also reveals that the use phase has the highest contribution to impacts due to electricity consumption. User location analysis further shows that Sweden has the lowest environmental impact, while Germany and the Netherlands have the highest potential for impact reduction when changing from a conventional system to the WashOne. Based on the overall results, some recommendations are provided to enhance the environmental performance of innovative toilet systems, namely the optimization of the washlet use patterns. This article highlights the importance of performing a LCA at an early stage of the development of innovative toilets by identifying the critical issues and hotspots to improve their design and performance.
ISSN: 1996-1073
DOI: 10.3390/en14082307
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D ADAI - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CQC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
FCTUC Eng.Civil - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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