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Title: The Biological Effects of 3D Resins Used in Orthodontics: A Systematic Review
Authors: Francisco, Inês 
Paula, Anabela Baptista 
Ribeiro, Madalena 
Marques, Filipa 
Travassos, Raquel 
Nunes, Catarina 
Pereira, Flávia 
Marto, Carlos Miguel 
Carrilho, Eunice 
Vale, Francisco 
Keywords: 3D resin; aligner; cytotoxicity; estrogenicity; invisalign; monomer; retainer
Issue Date: 3-Jan-2022
Serial title, monograph or event: Bioengineering
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) resin medical-dental devices have been increasingly used in recent years after the emergence of digital technologies. In Orthodontics, therapies with aligners have gained popularity, mainly due to the aggressive promotion policies developed by the industry. However, their systemic effects are largely unknown, with few studies evaluating the systemic toxicity of these materials. The release of bisphenol A and other residual monomers have cytotoxic, genotoxic, and estrogenic effects. This systematic review aims to analyze the release of toxic substances from 3D resins used in Orthodontics and their toxic systemic effects systematically. The PICO question asked was, "Does the use of 3D resins in orthodontic devices induce cytotoxic effects or changes in estrogen levels?". The search was carried out in several databases and according to PRISMA guidelines. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies were included. The in vitro studies' risk of bias was assessed using the guidelines for the reporting of pre-clinical studies on dental materials by Faggion Jr. For the in vivo studies, the SYRCLE risk of bias tool was used, and for the clinical studies, the Cochrane tool. A total of 400 articles retrieved from the databases were initially scrutinized. Fourteen articles were included for qualitative analysis. The risk of bias was considered medium to high. Cytotoxic effects or estrogen levels cannot be confirmed based on the limited preliminary evidence given by in vitro studies. Evidence of the release of bisphenol A and other monomers from 3D resin devices, either in vitro or clinical studies, remains ambiguous. The few robust results in the current literature demonstrate the absolute need for further studies, especially given the possible implications for the young patient's fertility, which constitutes one of the largest groups of patients using these orthodontic devices.
ISSN: 2306-5354
DOI: 10.3390/bioengineering9010015
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D ICBR - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais
I&D CIBB - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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