Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/100431
Title: Predictors of Anxiety in the COVID-19 Pandemic from a Global Perspective: Data from 23 Countries
Authors: Burkova, Valentina N.
Butovskaya, Marina L.
Randall, Ashley K. 
Fedenok, Julija N.
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh 
Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.
Allami, Fathil Bakir Mutsher
Alpaslan, Fadime Suata
Al-Zu’bi, Mohammad Ahmad Abdelaziz
Biçer, Derya Fatma
Cetinkaya, Hakan 
David, Oana Alexandra
Donato, Silvia 
Dural, Seda 
Erickson, Paige
Ermakov, Alexey M.
Ertuğrul, Berna
Fayankinnu, Emmanuel Abiodun
Fisher, Maryanne L.
Hocker, Lauren
Hromatko, Ivana 
Kasparova, Elena
Kavina, Alexander
Khatatbeh, Yahya M.
Khun-Inkeeree, Hareesol
Kline, Kai M.
Koç, Fırat 
Kolodkin, Vladimir
MacEacheron, Melanie
Maruf, Irma Rachmawati
Mesko, Norbert 
Mkrtchyan, Ruzan
Nurisnaeny, Poppy Setiawati
Ojedokun, Oluyinka 
Adebayo, Damilola
Omar-Fauzee, Mohd S. B. 
Özener, Barış 
Ponciano, Edna Lúcia Tinoco 
Rizwan, Muhammad 
Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka
Spodina, Victoriya I.
Stoyanova, Stanislava 
Tripathi, Nachiketa 
Upadhyay, Satwik
Weisfeld, Carol
Yaakob, Mohd Faiz Mohd
Yusof, Mat Rahimi
Zinurova, Raushaniia I.
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; SARS-CoV-2 infection; Anxiety; Stress; Cross-cultural; Individualism; Collectivism; Power distance; Looseness; Tightness
Issue Date: 4-Apr-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Project: 075-15-2020-910 
K125437 
Serial title, monograph or event: Sustainability
Volume: 13
Issue: 7
Place of publication or event: Basel
Abstract: Prior and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic restrictions have resulted in substantial changes to everyday life. The pandemic and measures of its control affect mental health negatively. Self-reported data from 15,375 participants from 23 countries were collected from May to August 2020 during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two questionnaires measuring anxiety level were used in this study—the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI). The associations between a set of social indicators on anxiety during COVID-19 (e.g., sex, age, country, live alone) were tested as well. Self-reported anxiety during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic varied across countries, with the maximum levels reported for Brazil, Canada, Italy, Iraq and the USA. Sex differences of anxiety levels during COVID-19 were also examined, and results showed women reported higher levels of anxiety compared to men. Overall, our results demonstrated that the self-reported symptoms of anxiety were higher compared to those reported in general before pandemic. We conclude that such cultural dimensions as individualism/collectivism, power distance and looseness/tightness may function as protective adaptive mechanisms against the development of anxiety disorders in a pandemic situation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/100431
ISSN: 2071-1050
DOI: 10.3390/su13074017
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:I&D CES - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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