Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/91321
Title: Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants
Authors: Rodriguez-Martinez, Andrea
Zhou, Bin
Sophiea, Marisa K
Bentham, James
Paciorek, Christopher J
Iurilli, Maria LC
Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M
Bennett, James E
Di Cesare, Mariachiara
Taddei, Cristina
Bixby, Honor
Stevens, Gretchen A
Riley, Leanne M
Cowan, Melanie J
Savin, Stefan
Danaei, Goodarz
Chirita-Emandi, Adela
Kengne, Andre P
Khang, Young-Ho
Laxmaiah, Avula
Malekzadeh, Reza
Miranda, J Jaime
Moon, Jin Soo
Popovic, Stevo R
Sørensen, Thorkild IA
Soric, Maroje
Starc, Gregor
Zainuddin, Ahmad A
Gregg, Edward W
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Black, Robert
Abarca-Gómez, Leandra
Abdeen, Ziad A
Abdrakhmanova, Shynar
Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila
Abdul Rahim, Hanan F
Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M
Abubakar Garba, Jamila
Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
Adams, Robert J
Aekplakorn, Wichai
Afsana, Kaosar
Afzal, Shoaib
Agdeppa, Imelda A
Aghazadeh-Attari, Javad
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A
Agyemang, Charles
Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan
Ahmad, Noor Ani
Ahmadi, Ali
Ahmadi, Naser
Ahmed, Soheir H
Ahrens, Wolfgang
Aitmurzaeva, Gulmira
Ajlouni, Kamel
Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Al-Othman, Amani Rashed
Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
Alarouj, Monira
AlBuhairan, Fadia
AlDhukair, Shahla
Ali, Mohamed M
Alkandari, Abdullah
Alkerwi, Ala'a
Allin, Kristine
Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar
Aly, Eman
Amarapurkar, Deepak N
Amiri, Parisa
Amougou, Norbert
Amouyel, Philippe
Andersen, Lars Bo
Anderssen, Sigmund A
Ängquist, Lars
Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza
Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
Araújo, Joana
Ariansen, Inger
Aris, Tahir
Arku, Raphael E
Arlappa, Nimmathota
Aryal, Krishna K
Aspelund, Thor
Assah, Felix K
Assunção, Maria Cecília F
Aung, May Soe
Auvinen, Juha
Avdicová, Mária
Azevedo, Ana
Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen
Azizi, Fereidoun
Azmin, Mehrdad
Babu, Bontha V
Bæksgaard Jørgensen, Maja
Baharudin, Azli
Bahijri, Suhad
Baker, Jennifer L
Balakrishna, Nagalla
Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed
Banach, Maciej
Bandosz, Piotr
Banegas, José R
Baran, Joanna
Barbagallo, Carlo M
Barceló, Alberto
Barkat, Amina
Barros, Aluisio JD
Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes
Basit, Abdul W. 
Bastos, Joao Luiz D
Bata, Iqbal
Batieha, Anwar M
Batista, Rosangela L
Battakova, Zhamilya
Batyrbek, Assembekov
Baur, Louise A
Beaglehole, Robert
Bel-Serrat, Silvia
Belavendra, Antonisamy
Ben Romdhane, Habiba
Benedics, Judith
Benet, Mikhail
Bennett, James E
Berkinbayev, Salim
Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
Bernotiene, Gailute
Bettiol, Heloísa
Bezerra, Jorge
Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor
Bharadwaj, Sumit
Bhargava, Santosh K
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Bi, Hongsheng
Bi, Yufang
Bia, Daniel
Bika Lele, Elysée Claude
Bikbov, Mukharram M
Bista, Bihungum
Bjelica, Dusko J
Bjerregaard, Peter
Bjertness, Espen
Bjertness, Marius B
Björkelund, Cecilia
Bloch, Katia V
Blokstra, Anneke
Bo, Simona
Bobak, Martin
Boddy, Lynne M
Boehm, Bernhard O
Boeing, Heiner
Boggia, Jose G
Bogova, Elena
Boissonnet, Carlos P
Bojesen, Stig E
Bonaccio, Marialaura
Bongard, Vanina
Bonilla-Vargas, Alice
Bopp, Matthias
Borghs, Herman
Bovet, Pascal
Braeckevelt, Lien
Braeckman, Lutgart
Bragt, Marjolijn CE
Brajkovich, Imperia
Branca, Francesco
Breckenkamp, Juergen
Breda, João Filipe Barbosa 
Brenner, Hermann
Brewster, Lizzy M
Brian, Garry R
Brinduse, Lacramioara
Brophy, Sinead
Bruno, Graziella
Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
Bugge, Anna
Buoncristiano, Marta
Burazeri, Genc
Burns, Con
Cabrera de León, Antonio
Cacciottolo, Joseph
Cai, Hui
Cama, Tilema
Cameron, Christine
Camolas, José
Can, Günay
Cândido, Ana Paula C
Cañete, Felicia
Capanzana, Mario V
Capková, Nadežda
Capuano, Eduardo
Capuano, Vincenzo
Cardol, Marloes
Cardoso, Viviane C
Carlsson, Axel C
Carmuega, Esteban
Carvalho, Joana
Casajús, José A
Casanueva, Felipe F
Celikcan, Ertugrul
Censi, Laura
Cervantes-Loaiza, Marvin
Cesar, Juraci A
Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
Chan, Angelique W
Chan, Queenie
Chaturvedi, Himanshu K
Chaturvedi, Nish
Che Abdul Rahim, Norsyamlina
Chen, Chien-Jen
Chen, Fangfang
Chen, Huashuai
Chen, Shuohua
Chen, Zhengming
Cheng, Ching-Yu
Cheraghian, Bahman
Chetrit, Angela
Chikova-Iscener, Ekaterina
Chiolero, Arnaud
Chiou, Shu-Ti
Chirita-Emandi, Adela
Chirlaque, María-Dolores
Cho, Belong
Christensen, Kaare
Christofaro, Diego G
Chudek, Jerzy
Cifkova, Renata
Cilia, Michelle
Cinteza, Eliza
Claessens, Frank
Clarke, Janine
Clays, Els
Cohen, Emmanuel
Concin, Hans
Confortin, Susana C
Cooper, Cyrus
Coppinger, Tara C
Corpeleijn, Eva
Costanzo, Simona
Cottel, Dominique
Cowell, Chris
Craig, Cora L
Crampin, Amelia C
Crujeiras, Ana B
Csilla, Semánová
Cucu, Alexandra M
Cui, Liufu
Cureau, Felipe V
D'Arrigo, Graziella
d'Orsi, Eleonora
Dacica, Liliana
Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles
Dallongeville, Jean
Damasceno, Albertino
Damsgaard, Camilla T
Danaei, Goodarz
Dankner, Rachel
Dantoft, Thomas M
Dasgupta, Parasmani
Dastgiri, Saeed
Dauchet, Luc
Davletov, Kairat
De Backer, Guy
De Bacquer, Dirk
de Gaetano, Giovanni
De Henauw, Stefaan
de Oliveira, Paula Duarte
De Ridder, David
De Ridder, Karin
de Rooij, Susanne R
De Smedt, Delphine
Deepa, Mohan
Deev, Alexander D
DeGennaro, Vincent Jr
Dehghan, Abbas
Delisle, Hélène
Delpeuch, Francis
Demarest, Stefaan
Dennison, Elaine
Deren, Katarzyna
Deschamps, Valérie
Dhana, Klodian
Dhimal, Meghnath
Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F
Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
Díaz-Sánchez, María Elena
Diaz, Alejandro
Dika, Zivka
Djalalinia, Shirin
Djordjic, Visnja
Do, Ha TP
Dobson, Annette J
Donati, Maria Benedetta
Donfrancesco, Chiara
Donoso, Silvana P
Döring, Angela
Dorobantu, Maria
Dorosty, Ahmad Reza
Doua, Kouamelan
Drygas, Wojciech
Duan, Jia Li
Duante, Charmaine A
Duboz, Priscilla
Duda, Rosemary B
Duleva, Vesselka
Dulskiene, Virginija
Dumith, Samuel C
Dushpanova, Anar
Dzerve, Vilnis
Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta
Eddie, Ricky
Eftekhar, Ebrahim
Egbagbe, Eruke E
Eggertsen, Robert
Eghtesad, Sareh
Eiben, Gabriele
Ekelund, Ulf
El-Khateeb, Mohammad
El Ati, Jalila
Eldemire-Shearer, Denise
Eliasen, Marie
Elliott, Paul
Engle-Stone, Reina
Enguerran, Macia
Erasmus, Rajiv T
Erbel, Raimund
Erem, Cihangir
Eriksen, Louise
Eriksson, Johan G
Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge
Eslami, Saeid
Esmaeili, Ali
Evans, Alun
Faeh, David
Fakhretdinova, Albina A
Fall, Caroline H
Faramarzi, Elnaz
Farjam, Mojtaba
Farrugia Sant'Angelo, Victoria
Farzadfar, Farshad
Fattahi, Mohammad Reza
Fawwad, Asher
Felix-Redondo, Francisco J
Ferguson, Trevor S
Fernandes, Romulo A
Fernández-Bergés, Daniel
Ferrante, Daniel
Ferrao, Thomas
Ferrari, Marika
Ferrario, Marco M
Ferreccio, Catterina
Ferrer, Eldridge
Ferrieres, Jean
Figueiró, Thamara Hubler
Fijalkowska, Anna
Fink, Günther
Fischer, Krista
Föger, Bernhard
Foo, Leng Huat
Forsner, Maria
Fouad, Heba M
Francis, Damian K
Franco, Maria do Carmo
Franco, Oscar H
Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth
Frontera, Guillermo
Fuchs, Flavio D
Fuchs, Sandra C
Fujiati, Isti I
Fujita, Yuki
Fumihiko, Matsuda
Furusawa, Takuro
Gaciong, Zbigniew
Gafencu, Mihai
Galbarczyk, Andrzej
Galenkamp, Henrike
Galeone, Daniela
Galfo, Myriam
Galvano, Fabio
Gao, Jingli
Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli
García-Solano, Marta
Gareta, Dickman
Garnett, Sarah P
Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
Gasull, Magda
Gaya, Adroaldo Cesar Araujo
Gaya, Anelise Reis
Gazzinelli, Andrea
Gehring, Ulrike
Geiger, Harald
Geleijnse, Johanna M
Ghanbari, Ali
Ghasemi, Erfan
Gheorghe-Fronea, Oana-Florentina
Giampaoli, Simona
Gianfagna, Francesco
Gill, Tiffany K
Giovannelli, Jonathan
Gironella, Glen
Giwercman, Aleksander
Gkiouras, Konstantinos
Godos, Justyna
Gogen, Sibel
Goldsmith, Rebecca A
Goltzman, David
Gómez, Santiago F
Gomula, Aleksandra
Goncalves Cordeiro da Silva, Bruna
Gonçalves, Helen
Gonzalez-Chica, David A
Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
González-Leon, Margot
González-Rivas, Juan P
González-Villalpando, Clicerio
González-Villalpando, María-Elena
Gonzalez, Angel R
Gottrand, Frederic
Graça, Antonio Pedro
Graff-Iversen, Sidsel
Grafnetter, Dušan
Grajda, Aneta
Grammatikopoulou, Maria G
Gregor, Ronald D
Grodzicki, Tomasz
Grøholt, Else Karin
Grøntved, Anders
Grosso, Giuseppe
Gruden, Gabriella
Gu, Dongfeng
Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela
Guallar-Castillón, Pilar
Gualtieri, Andrea
Gudmundsson, Elias F
Gudnason, Vilmundur
Guerrero, Ramiro
Guessous, Idris
Guimaraes, Andre L
Gulliford, Martin C
Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
Gunter, Marc J
Guo, Xiu-Hua
Guo, Yin
Gupta, Prakash C
Gupta, Rajeev
Gureje, Oye
Gurzkowska, Beata
Gutiérrez-González, Enrique
Gutierrez, Laura
Gutzwiller, Felix
Ha, Seongjun
Hadaegh, Farzad
Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A
Haghshenas, Rosa
Hakimi, Hamid
Halkjær, Jytte
Hambleton, Ian R
Hamzeh, Behrooz
Hange, Dominique
Hanif, Abu AM
Hantunen, Sari
Hari Kumar, Rachakulla
Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad
Hassapidou, Maria
Hata, Jun
Haugsgjerd, Teresa
Hayes, Alison J
He, Jiang
He, Yuan
He, Yuna
Heidinger-Felso, Regina
Heinen, Mirjam
Hejgaard, Tatjana
Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
Henrique, Rafael dos Santos
Henriques, Ana
Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
Herrala, Sauli
Herrera, Victor M
Herter-Aeberli, Isabelle
Heshmat, Ramin
Hill, Allan G
Ho, Sai Yin
Ho, Suzanne C
Hobbs, Michael
Hofman, Albert
Holden Bergh, Ingunn
Holdsworth, Michelle
Homayounfar, Reza
Homs, Clara
Hopman, Wilma M
Horimoto, Andrea RVR
Hormiga, Claudia M
Horta, Bernardo L
Houti, Leila
Howitt, Christina
Htay, Thein Thein
Htet, Aung Soe
Htike, Maung Maung Than
Hu, Yonghua
Huerta, José María
Huhtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
Huidumac Petrescu, Constanta
Husseini, Abdullatif
Huu, Chinh Nguyen
Huybrechts, Inge
Hwalla, Nahla
Hyska, Jolanda
Iacoviello, Licia
Ibarluzea, Jesús M
Ibrahim, Mohsen M
Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah
Ikeda, Nayu
Ikram, M Arfan
Iotova, Violeta
Irazola, Vilma E
Ishida, Takafumi
Islam, Muhammad
Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
Iwasaki, Masanori
Jackson, Rod T
Jacobs, Jeremy M
Jaddou, Hashem Y
Jafar, Tazeen
James, Kenneth
Jamil, Kazi M
Jamrozik, Konrad
Janszky, Imre
Janus, Edward
Jarani, Juel
Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
Jasienska, Grazyna
Jelakovic, Ana
Jelakovic, Bojan
Jennings, Garry
Jha, Anjani Kumar
Jiang, Chao Qiang
Jimenez, Ramon O
Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
Joffres, Michel
Johansson, Mattias
Jokelainen, Jari J
Jonas, Jost B
Jørgensen, Torben
Joshi, Pradeep
Joukar, Farahnaz
Jovic, Dragana P
Józwiak, Jacek J
Juolevi, Anne
Jurak, Gregor
Jurca Simina, Iulia
Juresa, Vesna
Kaaks, Rudolf
Kaducu, Felix O
Kafatos, Anthony
Kajantie, Eero O
Kalmatayeva, Zhanna
Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
Kameli, Yves
Kanala, Kodanda R
Kannan, Srinivasan
Kapantais, Efthymios
Karki, Khem B
Katibeh, Marzieh
Katz, Joanne
Katzmarzyk, Peter T
Kauhanen, Jussi
Kaur, Prabhdeep
Kavousi, Maryam
Kazakbaeva, Gyulli M
Keil, Ulrich
Keinan Boker, Lital
Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka
Kelishadi, Roya
Kelleher, Cecily
Kemper, Han CG
Kengne, Andre P
Keramati, Maryam
Kerimkulova, Alina
Kersting, Mathilde
Key, Timothy
Khader, Yousef Saleh
Khalili, Davood
Khang, Young-Ho
Khaw, Kay-Tee
Kheiri, Bahareh
Kheradmand, Motahareh
Khosravi, Alireza
Khouw, Ilse MSL
Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula
Kiechl, Stefan
Killewo, Japhet
Kim, Dong Wook
Kim, Hyeon Chang
Kim, Jeongseon
Kindblom, Jenny M
Klakk, Heidi
Klimek, Magdalena
Klimont, Jeannette
Klumbiene, Jurate
Knoflach, Michael
Koirala, Bhawesh
Kolle, Elin
Kolsteren, Patrick
König, Jürgen
Korpelainen, Raija
Korrovits, Paul
Korzycka, Magdalena
Kos, Jelena
Koskinen, Seppo
Kouda, Katsuyasu
Kovacs, Viktoria A
Kowlessur, Sudhir
Koziel, Slawomir
Kratzer, Wolfgang
Kriemler, Susi
Kristensen, Peter Lund
Krokstad, Steiner
Kromhout, Daan
Krtalic, Branimir
Kruger, Herculina S
Kubinova, Ruzena
Kuciene, Renata
Kujala, Urho M
Kujundzic, Enisa
Kulaga, Zbigniew
Kumar, R Krishna
Kunešová, Marie
Kurjata, Pawel
Kusuma, Yadlapalli S
Kuulasmaa, Kari
Kyobutungi, Catherine
La, Quang Ngoc
Laamiri, Fatima Zahra
Laatikainen, Tiina
Lachat, Carl
Laid, Youcef
Lam, Tai Hing
Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina
Landais, Edwige
Lanska, Vera
Lappas, Georg
Larijani, Bagher
Latt, Tint Swe
Lauria, Laura
Laxmaiah, Avula
Lazo-Porras, Maria
Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh
Le Port, Agnès
Le, Tuyen D
Lee, Jeannette
Lee, Jeonghee
Lee, Paul H
Lehmann, Nils
Lehtimäki, Terho
Lemogoum, Daniel
Levitt, Naomi S
Li, Yanping
Liivak, Merike
Lilly, Christa L
Lim, Wei-Yen
Lima-Costa, M Fernanda
Lin, Hsien-Ho
Lin, Xu
Lin, Yi-Ting
Lind, Lars
Linneberg, Allan
Lissner, Lauren
Litwin, Mieczyslaw
Liu, Jing
Liu, Lijuan
Lo, Wei-Cheng
Loit, Helle-Mai
Long, Khuong Quynh
Lopes, Luis
Lopes, Oscar
Lopez-Garcia, Esther
Lopez, Tania
Lotufo, Paulo A
Lozano, José Eugenio
Lukrafka, Janice L
Luksiene, Dalia
Lundqvist, Annamari
Lundqvist, Robert
Lunet, Nuno
Lunogelo, Charles
Lustigová, Michala
Luszczki, Edyta
Ma, Guansheng
Ma, Jun
Ma, Xu
Machado-Coelho, George LL
Rodrigues, Aristides Miguel da Costa Machado 
Machi, Suka
Macieira, Luisa M
Madar, Ahmed A
Maggi, Stefania
Magliano, Dianna J
Magnacca, Sara
Magriplis, Emmanuella
Mahasampath, Gowri
Maire, Bernard
Majer, Marjeta
Makdisse, Marcia
Mäki, Päivi
Malekzadeh, Fatemeh
Malekzadeh, Reza
Malhotra, Rahul
Mallikharjuna Rao, Kodavanti
Malyutina, Sofia K
Maniego, Lynell V
Manios, Yannis
Mann, Jim I
Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz
Manzato, Enzo
Margozzini, Paula
Markaki, Anastasia
Markey, Oonagh
Markidou Ioannidou, Eliza
Marques-Vidal, Pedro
Marques, Larissa Pruner
Marrugat, Jaume
Martin-Prevel, Yves
Martin, Rosemarie
Martorell, Reynaldo
Martos, Eva
Marventano, Stefano
Mascarenhas, Luís P. G. 
Masoodi, Shariq R
Mathiesen, Ellisiv B
Mathur, Prashant
Matijasevich, Alicia
Matsha, Tandi E
Mavrogianni, Christina
Mazur, Artur
Mbanya, Jean Claude N
McFarlane, Shelly R
McGarvey, Stephen T
McKee, Martin
McLachlan, Stela
McLean, Rachael M
McLean, Scott B
McNulty, Breige A
Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
Medzioniene, Jurate
Mehdipour, Parinaz
Mehlig, Kirsten
Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang
Meirhaeghe, Aline
Meisfjord, Jørgen
Meisinger, Christa
Menezes, Ana Maria B
Menon, Geetha R
Mensink, Gert BM
Menzano, Maria Teresa
Mereke, Alibek
Meshram, Indrapal I
Metspalu, Andres
Mi, Jie
Michaelsen, Kim F
Michels, Nathalie
Mikkel, Kairit
Milkowska, Karolina
Miller, Jody C
Minderico, Cláudia S
Mini, GK
Miquel, Juan Francisco
Miranda, J Jaime
Mirjalili, Mohammad Reza
Mirkopoulou, Daphne
Mirrakhimov, Erkin
Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
Mistretta, Antonio
Mocanu, Veronica
Modesti, Pietro A
Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi
Mohajer, Bahram
Mohamed, Mostafa K
Mohamed, Shukri F
Mohammad, Kazem
Mohammadi, Zahra
Mohammadifard, Noushin
Mohammadpourhodki, Reza
Mohan, Viswanathan
Mohanna, Salim
Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli
Mohebbi, Iraj
Mohebi, Farnam
Moitry, Marie
Molbo, Drude
Møllehave, Line T
Møller, Niels C
Molnár, Dénes
Momenan, Amirabbas
Mondo, Charles K
Monroy-Valle, Michele
Monterrubio-Flores, Eric
Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K
Moon, Jin Soo
Moosazadeh, Mahmood
Moreira, Leila B
Morejon, Alain
Moreno, Luis A
Morgan, Karen
Morin, Suzanne N
Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Moschonis, George
Mossakowska, Malgorzata
Mostafa, Aya
Pinto, Anabela Mota 
Mota, Jorge 
Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
Motta, Jorge
Moura-dos-Santos, Marcos André
Mridha, Malay K
Msyamboza, Kelias P
Mu, Thet Thet
Muc, Magdalena 
Mugoša, Boban
Muiesan, Maria L
Mukhtorova, Parvina
Müller-Nurasyid, Martina
Murphy, Neil
Mursu, Jaakko
Murtagh, Elaine M
Musa, Kamarul Imran
Music Milanovic, Sanja
Musil, Vera
Mustafa, Norlaila
Nabipour, Iraj
Naderimagham, Shohreh
Nagel, Gabriele
Naidu, Balkish M
Najafi, Farid
Nakamura, Harunobu
Námešná, Jana
Nang, Ei Ei K
Nangia, Vinay B
Nankap, Martin
Narake, Sameer
Nardone, Paola
Nauck, Matthias
Neal, William A
Nejatizadeh, Azim
Nelis, Keiu
Nelis, Liis
Nenko, Ilona
Neovius, Martin
Nervi, Flavio
Nguyen, Chung T
Nguyen, D
Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E
Nikitin, Yury P
Ning, Guang
Ninomiya, Toshiharu
Nishtar, Sania
Noale, Marianna
Noboa, Oscar A
Nogueira, Helena
Norat, Teresa
Nordendahl, Maria
Nordestgaard, Børge G
Noto, Davide
Nowak-Szczepanska, Natalia
Nsour, Mohannad Al
Nuhoglu, Irfan
Nurk, Eha
O'Neill, Terence W
O'Reilly, Dermot
Obreja, Galina
Ochimana, Caleb
Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica M
Oda, Eiji
Oh, Kyungwon
Ohara, Kumiko
Ohlsson, Claes
Ohtsuka, Ryutaro
Olafsson, Örn
Olinto, Maria Teresa A
Oliveira, Isabel O
Omar, Mohd Azahadi
Onat, Altan
Ong, Sok King
Ono, Lariane M
Ordunez, Pedro
Ornelas, Rui
Ortiz, Ana P
Ortiz, Pedro J
Osler, Merete
Osmond, Clive
Ostojic, Sergej M
Ostovar, Afshin
Otero, Johanna A
Overvad, Kim
Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
Paccaud, Fred Michel
Padez, Cristina
Pagkalos, Ioannis
Pahomova, Elena
Paiva, Karina Mary de
Pajak, Andrzej
Palli, Domenico
Palloni, Alberto
Palmieri, Luigi
Pan, Wen-Harn
Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
Pandey, Arvind
Panza, Francesco
Papandreou, Dimitrios
Park, Soon-Woo
Park, Suyeon
Parnell, Winsome R
Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
Pascanu, Ionela M
Pasquet, Patrick
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Keywords: Body-mass index; School-aged children
Issue Date: Nov-2020
Serial title, monograph or event: The Lancet
Volume: 396
Issue: 10261
Abstract: Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5–19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9–10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3·5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes—gaining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both—occurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10316/91321
ISSN: 01406736
DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31859-6
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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