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Title: Issue 1 - "Update on adverse respiratory effects of outdoor air pollution" Part 2): Outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases: Perspectives from Angola, Brazil, Canada, Iran, Mozambique and Portugal
Authors: Sousa, A. C. M. 
Pastorinho, M. R. 
Masjedi, M. R.
Urrutia-Pereira, M.
Arrais, M.
Nunes, E.
To, T.
Ferreira, A. J. 
Robalo-Cordeiro, C. 
Borrego, C.
Teixeira, J. P. 
Taborda-Barata, L.
Keywords: Air pollution; Asthma; COPD; Chronic respiratory diseases; GARD; Portugal
Issue Date: 11-May-2022
Serial title, monograph or event: Pulmonology
Abstract: Objective: To analyse the GARD perspective on the health effects of outdoor air pollution, and to synthesise the Portuguese epidemiological contribution to knowledge on its respiratory impact. Results: Ambient air pollution has deleterious respiratory effects which are more apparent in larger, densely populated and industrialised countries, such as Canada, Iran, Brazil and Portugal, but it also affects people living in low-level exposure areas. While low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), are particularly affected, evidence based on epidemiological studies from LMICs is both limited and heterogeneous. While nationally, Portugal has a relatively low level of air pollution, many major cities face with substantial air pollution problems. Time series and cross-sectional epidemiological studies have suggested increased respiratory hospital admissions, and increased risk of respiratory diseases in people who live in urban areas and are exposed to even a relatively low level of air pollution. Conclusions: Adverse respiratory effects due to air pollution, even at low levels, have been confirmed by epidemiological studies. However, evidence from LMICs is heterogeneous and relatively limited. Furthermore, longitudinal cohort studies designed to study and quantify the link between exposure to air pollutants and respiratory diseases are needed. Worldwide, an integrated approach must involve multi-level stakeholders including governments (in Portugal, the Portuguese Ministry of Health, which hosts GARD-Portugal), academia, health professionals, scientific societies, patient associations and the community at large. Such an approach not only will garner a robust commitment, establish strong advocacy and clear objectives, and raise greater awareness, it will also support a strategy with adequate measures to be implemented to achieve better air quality and reduce the burden of chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs).
ISSN: 25310437
DOI: 10.1016/j.pulmoe.2021.12.007
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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