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Title: Relevant Aspects of Piranha Passivation in Ti6Al4V Alloy Dental Meshes
Authors: Cruz, Nuno
Gil, Javier
Punset, Miquel
Manero, José María
Tondela, João Paulo 
Verdeguer, Pablo
Aparicio, Conrado
Rúperez, Elisa
Keywords: Bacterial adhesion; Corrosion resistance; Dental meshes; Ion release; Passivation; Piranha; Titanium
Issue Date: 2022
Project: Spanish Government and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain projects RTI2018-098075-B-C21 and RTI2018-098075-B-C22 (cofunded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) 
Generalitat de Catalunya 2017SGR-1165 project and the 2017SGR708 project 
Serial title, monograph or event: Coatings
Volume: 12
Issue: 2
Abstract: Passivation of titanium alloy dental meshes cleans their surface and forms a thin layer of protective oxide (TiO2) on the surface of the material to improve resistance to corrosion and prevent release of ions to the physiological environment. The most common chemical agent for the passivation process of titanium meshes is hydrochloric acid (HCl). In this work, we introduce the use of Piranha solution (H2SO4 and H2O2) as a passivating and bactericidal agent for metallic dental meshes. Meshes of grade 5 titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were tested after different treatments: as-received control (Ctr), passivated by HCl, and passivated by Piranha solution. Physical-chemical characterization of all treated surfaces was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy and sessile drop goniometry to assess meshes’ topography, elemental composition, roughness, wettability and surface free energy, that is, relevant properties with potential effects for the biological response of the material. Moreover, open circuit potential and potentiodynamic tests were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of the differently-treated meshes under physiological conditions. Ion release tests were conducted using Inductively Coupled Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The antibacterial activity by prevention of bacterial adhesion tests on the meshes was performed for two different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-) and Streptococcus sanguinis (Gram+). Additionally, a bacterial viability study was performed with the LIVE/DEAD test. We complemented the antibacterial study by counting cells attached to the surface of the meshes visualized by SEM. Our results showed that the passivation of titanium meshes with Piranha solution improved their hydrophilicity and conferred a notably higher bactericidal activity in comparison with the meshes passivated with HCl. This unique response can be attributed to differences in the obtained nanotextures of the TiO2 layer. However, Piranha solution treatment decreased electrochemical stability and increased ion release as a result of the porous coating formed on the treated surfaces, which can compromise their corrosion resistance. Framed by the limitations of this work, we conclude that using Piranha solution is a viable alternative method for passivating titanium dental meshes with beneficial antibacterial properties that merits further validation for its translation as a treatment applied to clinically-used meshes.
ISSN: 2079-6412
DOI: 10.3390/coatings12020154
Rights: openAccess
Appears in Collections:FMUC Medicina - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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